Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels used in transport. Biofuels include bioethanol and biodiesel. Bioliquids are liquid fuels, such as pyrolysis oil, made for purposes other than transport (e.g. heating). Biofuels and bioliquids are made from biomass.
Biofuels and bioliquids must fulfil the sustainability criteria set by the EU. The Act on Biofuels and Bioliquids (393/2013) lays down provisions on the sustainability criteria of the EU and the procedures to be used to verify compliance with them.
Under the Act on promoting the use of biofuels for transport (446/2007), a distributor of transport fuels liable to pay tax has the obligation to supply biofuels for consumption. By 2020 the share of the total energy content of the petrol, diesel oil and biofuels supplied by the distributor for consumption to be accounted for by the energy content of biofuels will steadily increase to 20 per cent (distribution obligation). For the purposes of this objective, the amounts of biofuels produced from waste and leftovers specified in the act are doubled. The biofuels included in the distribution obligation must meet the sustainability criteria of the EU.
The targets for biofuels for the post-2020 era are set in the National Climate and Energy Strategy to 2030. In November 2016 the Commission gave a proposal for a new Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) that creates a framework for promoting renewable energy to 2030. The proposal is now in the European Parliament and Council. The Commission proposal contains provisions concerning biofuels and sustainability criteria for the time after 2020.
Further information: jukka.saarinen(at)tem.fi, harri.haavisto(at)tem.fi and harri.hillamo(at)tem.fi