Nuclear facility operators have unlimited liability
Under the Nuclear Liability Act (484/1972), the operators of nuclear facilities located in Finland have unlimited liability for damage caused to third parties in Finland. The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment oversees the currency and development of the Nuclear Liability Act, in consideration of the international agreements.
Finland is liable for damage in the field of nuclear energy under the Paris Convention (Finnish Treaty Series 20/1972) and the Brussels Supplementary Convention on damage liability in the field of nuclear energy (Finnish Treaty Series 4/1977). Finland has also signed the Vienna Joint Protocol (Finnish Treaty Series 98/1994). The joint protocol determines matters concerning nuclear liability between countries that have signed the Paris Convention and those that have signed the Vienna Convention on liability for nuclear damage. The international conventions in question determine the basic principles of the nuclear liability system.
The maximum amount of liability under this Act for the operator of a nuclear facility located in Finland and used for energy production, for nuclear damages outside Finland resulting from the same nuclear incident, is 1.2 billion euros. The maximum amount of liability under this Act for the operator of a nuclear facility located in Finland and used for other purposes than energy production, for nuclear damages outside Finland resulting from the same nuclear incident, is 250 million euros. The holder of the facility must obtain insurance to cover the maximum liability.
The maximum amount of liability for nuclear damages outside Finland during the transportation of nuclear fuel and other nuclear material is 80 million euros. Damages other than those incurred to the transport vehicle are compensated of this maximum amount up to 80 million euros.
Finland is a party to international agreements according to which the contracting countries agree to compensate for damage exceeding the maximum level of the facility operator’s liability.
Finnish injured parties can also receive compensation for damage caused by a nuclear facility situated outside Finland, provided that the facility is located in a country adhering to the above-mentioned agreements.
Further information: juho.korteniemi(at)gov.fi