Security and safeguards
Security refers to measures that protect the nuclear facilities, nuclear material and radiation sources from illegal operations. The parts of security are preventing, observing and stalling illegal operations as well as the response to illegal operations. The response includes stopping illegal operations, controlling the situation as well as preventing and limiting the consequences. The security is maintained by operators in the field, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority and other authorities alike.
In accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the aim of the nuclear safeguards is to limit the spread of nuclear weapons as well as to ensure that nuclear material, equipment and technology are only used for peaceful purposes. Supervision is necessary, as nuclear material is suitable for fission. For example, the fresh and spent fuel at nuclear power plants are nuclear material.
The inspectors of the IAEA and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) supervise the possession and international transfer of nuclear material. In Finland, the national monitoring of nuclear material is the responsibility of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority.
Export and import licences for nuclear material must be applied for from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, as provided in the Nuclear Energy Act (990/1987). The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for granting export licences for dual-use items.
Further information: Jorma Aurela