Export controls of nuclear material help to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons
In accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the aim of the nuclear safeguards is to limit the spread of nuclear weapons as well as to ensure that nuclear material, equipment and technologies are only used for peaceful purposes.
At practical level, the international nuclear safeguards are the responsibility of the inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). In Finland, the national monitoring of nuclear material is the responsibility of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority.
Export and import licences for nuclear material must be applied for from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, as provided in the Nuclear Energy Act (990/1987). The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for granting export licences for dual-use items.
The Zangger Committee operates at international level. The committee, which has 36 members, was established to harmonise the interpretations of the export control policy laid down in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The group of nuclear exporting countries (Nuclear Suppliers Group; NSG) has worked to limit the proliferation of nuclear weapons by means of conditions for export of nuclear material in such areas as nuclear safeguards and security measures in the receiving country. The NSG has 45 members. Finland belongs to both the Zangger Committee and the NSG.
Further information: liisa.heikinheimo(at)tem.fi